Glossary of terms


A user that wants to store or get data on the Filecoin Network.

content identifier (CID)

A unique identifier for each file stored on the Filecoin Network generated by cryptographic hash functions. This is effectively a hash value.


A hash tree which a miner “commits” when sealing a sector. Various kinds of commitments are used in the Filecoin Protocol to enable proofs:

expected consensus

A specific set of rules that keeps all devices on the Filecoin network synchronized with each other while preventing exploitation of the system. For more details, please see


Assurance that data has remained unchanged in the preservation sense. Data fixity is commonly established and monitored through the use of cryptographic techniques like hashes.


The process of taking an input of any length and turning it into a cryptographic fixed output through a mathematical algorithm (ex: MD5, SHA-512).


A device that competes to provide storage and rent it out to clients. A storage miner stores data from clients in their sectors and earn tokens for doing so. After the storage miner and client agree on a deal, the miner is obliged to continuously provide proofs that it is storing the data.


Some part of data that a client is storing in the Filecoin Network. Data, for example a still image or audio-visual file, can be deliberately divided into many pieces and each piece can be stored by a different set of storage miners.


A piece of data which is computationally difficult to produce but easy for others to formally verify. Various kinds of proofs are used in the Filecoin Protocol to cryptographically verify that data is continuously stored in accordance with deals made, such as:


A slow encoding process that returns commitments and proofs for data being stored in a sector.


Some disk space that a storage miner provides to the Filecoin Network.


A symbol of a contract that regulates transactions and value on the Filecoin Network.

Further Reading